P.P. & S. PAMUR Kombinasi Tjimande

Tari Kolot Kebon Djeroek Hilir Banten Indonesia

  Within this section the three fundamental values are described. It is a continuation of the explanation about Pencak & Silat. The three fundamental values are described in the books of Notosoejitno. Successively are discussed: culture, philosophy and branches.

Pencak & Silat
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Explanation of Pencak & Silat
Picture: Team PERSILAT Indonesia.

Guru Besar/ Pendekar Ph.J.C. Tönjes glr. Sanjoto, sesepuh.

Books Notosoejitno:
“Serbaneka Miscellaneous Pencak Silat”, Pondok Pustaka Padepokan Pencak Silat Indonesia, 1999.
"The treasury of Pencak Silat", Jakarta: Infomedika, 1997.

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The Pencak and Silat exists mainly of behavioural studies of various animals. For example the way they move, attack and defend. It is a creation of the people of Indonesia like any other associated cultural experiences. Take, for instance, the language, folk dances and the shadow plays (wayang) with the matching gamelan music.

Pencak Silat performances are guided by rhythmic music. This is called ‘kembang’, which means ‘flower’. The clothing is based on traditional local costumes.

Originally, the self defence art is more based on meditation than on the actions themselves. Still meditation is a fundamental element. Besides meditation, religion is very important in the Pencak Silat.

Throughout history, intruders of the Indonesian Islands brought weapons to the country. As reaction Indonesian people also invented arms, which nowadays still are used in the performance of Pencak Silat. The weapon types differ with every region.
Pisau Short knife

Parang Machete

Pedang/ Klewang Sword
Celurit Reaping hook
Badik Short knife with grip
Tongkat Long stick
Penton Bat
Tri Sula Three-pointed steal stabbing weapon
Siku Siku Steal stabbing weapon with two opposite elbow hooks for the protection of the hands.
Panah Spear

Some modern people use a keris in performing pencak silat. In history however, this was not allowed. Because a keris is no defence or fighting weapon. It is a symbol, based on a meditation, which is especially made for a certain purpose and sometimes also for a particular person. In the old days, the keris was made and shaped by hand, without fire. It was very difficult to make. A keris was held, for example for healing or for the protection of a house. It was kept on an honoured place in the house. Nowadays the keris is made like any other iron subject. During the period of Majapahit and Dong On Dynasty the keris was wrought iron. In that time, some of the keris were made without initiation. That kind of keris could be used in a play or in a fight.

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The only international organization of Pencak Silat is the PERSILAT, which was founded in Jakarta on March 11th 1980. PERSILAT is an acronym of the International Pencak Silat Federation. The principles of the PERSILAT are: brotherhood, unity and honouring each other. Not discriminate nationality and religion. The organization is non-political. Basically, every national organisation of Pencak Silat can become a member of PERSILAT, either the one which has been recognised or that which had not been recognised yet by the national authorised body. Even any Pencak Silat organisation which has no qualification yet as national organisation can become member of PERSILAT if it is considered worthy to represent its country.

Padepokan Pencak Silat Indonesia is the world centre of Pencak Silat. Padepokan is a Javanese term which means a complex of houses on a relatively large area provided for learning and teaching a certain knowledge and skill. Padepokan Pencak Silat Indonesia is a padepokan with national and international scale. It was opened on April 20, 1997. It has all facilities like various training spots, a stadium, a hotel and a library.

A training at Padepokan

A practitioner of Pencak Silat is called pesilat. In 1991 the third congress of PERSILAT determined a code of conduct of the worldwide Pencak Silat man, which was called TRIPASETNYA PESILAT. In 1996 the fourth congress of PERSILAT changed it and determined the new one which was called IKRAR PESILAT, meaning the promise declaration of the Pencak Silat man to himself. The complete text of IKRAR PESILAT is:

1. Pesilat is an individual who has a noble mind and character.
2. Pesilat is a man who honours his fellow men and loves friendship and peace.
3. Pesilat is a man who always thinks and does positively, creatively and dynamically.
4. Pesilat is knight who upholds truth, honesty and justice and is test-proof in facing any ordeal and temptation.
5. Pesilat is a knight who always accounts for his words and deeds.

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The four values of Pencak Silat, that is ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletically values, which are also the four aspects of Pencak Silat, that is mental-spiritual, self-defence, art and sports aspect, lay the basis of the growth and development of Pencak Silat into four branches, each of which has its own purpose in its performance.

Self defensive Pencak Silat techniques is the original source of the techniques of the other branches of Pencak Silat, while the techniques of the other branches of Pencak Silat are derivation and modification of the techniques of self defensive Pencak Silat. So when it is needed, the Mental-Spiritual Pencak Silat, the Artistic Pencak Silat and the Sports Pencak Silat can be refunctionalised as Self defensive Pencak Silat.

The performance of Mental-Spiritual Pencak Silat is emphasised to the impartment of the value of ethic, that is the value of the philosophy of noble mind and character in the form of symbolic techniques, without nullifying the values of technique, aesthetic and athletic. This Pencak Silat has the purpose to strengthen the ability of self-control in the performance of Pencak Silat. So it is also called as Self-controlled Pencak Silat. Mental-Spiritual Pencak Silat is not autonomous and is usually brought forth in the opening of the other branches Pencak Silat performance.

The performance of Self defensive Pencak Silat is emphasised to the value of techniques to defend oneself effectively without nullifying the values of ethic, aesthetic and athletic.

The performance of Artistic pencak silat is emphasised to the value of aesthetic to show the beauty and harmony of Pencak Silat without nullifying the values of ethic, technique and athletic.

The performance of Sports Pencak Silat is emphasised to the value of athletic, to gain and keep physical skill, fitness and adroitness as well as sports achievement without nullifying the values of ethic, technique and aesthetic.

Thus, all of the techniques in each branch of Pencak Silat have ethical, technical, aesthetical and athletically values as an integral unity. However, one value which is the basis of its branch, gets special focus.

Explanation of Pencak & Silat

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